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European ASP.NET MVC Hosting :: Basic Routing in ASP.NET MVC

clock January 30, 2019 10:22 by author Scott

When getting started with ASP.NET MVC and/or the ASP.NET Web API, it can be overwhelming trying to figure out how it all works. These frameworks offer powerful features, and abstract away a good deal of pain associated with handling, routing, and responding to HTTP requests within an application. This is a great thing for seasoned developers who understand what it is the framework is doing “for” you (and how to modify that behavior, if desired). It also makes it easier for new or less-experienced folk to set up a basic site or API and watch it “just work.”

On the other hand, the abstraction can make it challenging for those new to the MVC world to understand just what is going on, and where the critical functionality they want to modify “lives.”

One of the fundamental concepts to understand when using ASP.NET MVC and/or the ASP.NET Web API is routing, which essentially defines how your application will process and respond to incoming HTTP requests.

Routing Makes it All Work

Traditional web communication architecture maps a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) to a file within the file system. For example, the following:

http://mydomain.com/mybooks/favorites.html

would tend to map to a file named favorites.html, in the directory ~/mybooks/favorites, located in the root directory for the site mydomain.com. In response to an incoming HTTP request for this resource, the contents of the file are either returned (as in the example above, as HTML) or perhaps code associated with a file is executed (if, for example, the file were a .aspx file).

Within the MVC framework, as well as the Web API*, URLs are instead mapped to specific methods which execute in response to the incoming request, generally returning either a View (MVC) or some sort of structured data (Web API) corresponding to the the requested resource. In other words, instead of pointing to actual physical resources within a file system, MVC and Web API routes instead point to an abstraction which represents the resource requested, in both cases a method which will return the requested item.

This de-coupling of the URL from the physical file system allows us to construct cleaner, more friendly URLs which are more beneficial to the user, search-engine-friendly, and (in theory) more persistent, meaning URLs associated with specific content are less likely to change, and break incoming links. 

How Routing Works in ASP.NET MVC

In MVC, the convention is to map URLs to a particular action (a method) on a particular controller. The action then executes, and (usually, but not always) returns an instance of ActionResult. The ActionResult class handles Framework logic such as rendering to HTML or JSON, and writing to the HTTP response that will be returned to the user’s browser.

Once again, I defer to the authors of ASP.NET MVC 4 (who happen to also be members of the ASP.NET team):

The most basic version of this convention would be a URL as follows:

http://mydomain/controllername/methodname

In an MVC project, this is achieved by registering route templates which establish how incoming URLs will be mapped to specific controllers and actions. A typical MVC project defines a Global.asx file, which contains a single method – Application_Start. Within this method, calls are made to various configuration methods to set up the application’s working state. One of these calls is to the RegisterRoutes method of the RouteConfig class found in the App_Start folder of the project.

Global.asx File and the RouteConfig File in a Typical MVC Project:

If we examine the Global.asx file, we find the following code:

The Default ASP.NET MVC Global.asx File:

public class MvcApplication : System.Web.HttpApplication
{
    protected void Application_Start()
    {
        AreaRegistration.RegisterAllAreas();
        WebApiConfig.Register(GlobalConfiguration.Configuration);
        FilterConfig.RegisterGlobalFilters(GlobalFilters.Filters);
        RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes(RouteTable.Routes);
        BundleConfig.RegisterBundles(BundleTable.Bundles);
    }
}

For our purposes, we are interested only in the call to RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes. As we can see, the call passes the the Routes collection of the Global RouteTable as a parameter to the RegisterRoutes method, which then populates the routes collection with pre-defined route templates for the application. The default MVC project template comes with a single pre-configured route:

The Default MVC RouteConfig Class:

public class RouteConfig
{
    public static void RegisterRoutes(RouteCollection routes)
    {
        routes.IgnoreRoute("{resource}.axd/{*pathInfo}");
        routes.MapRoute(
            name: "Default",
            url: "{controller}/{action}/{id}",
            defaults: new
            {
                controller = "Home",
                action = "Index",
                id = UrlParameter.Optional
            }
        );
    }
}

Note that any MVC application must have at least one route definition in order to function. In the above, a route template named “Default” is added to the routes collection. The items in curly braces enclose Route Parameters, and are represented by the parameter name as a placeholder between the curly braces. Route Segments are separated by forward slashes (much like a standard URL). Notice how the implied relative URL our route specifies matches the MVC convention:

~/{controller}/{action}

Route parameters can be named just about anything, however ASP.NET recognizes a few special route parameter names, in particular {controller} and {action}, and treats them differently than other route parameters.

Controller Matching

When the routing framework encounters a route parameter named {controller}, it appends the suffix “Controller” to the value of the parameter, and then scans the project for a class by that name which also implements the System.Web.Mvc.IController interface. Note that the search for a controller with a matching name is case-insensitive.

Action Matching

Once the framework has selected the proper controller, it attempts to locate an action on the controller with a name matching the {action} parameter value. The search for a matching action name is case-insensitive. If more than one action matches by name (as with multiple overloaded methods on the same controller), the framework will select the method for which the most URL parameters match method arguments by name.

Action Parameter Matching

Additional URL Parameters other than {controller} and {action} are available to be passed as arguments to the selected Action method. The framework will evaluate the input arguments of the available actions, and match them by name (case-insensitively) to the URL parameters other than {action} and {controller}. With certain restrictions, the framework will select that action with the greatest number of matching parameters.

Some things to consider:

  • The MVC framework will first match method arguments by name to URL parameters. Then, it will attempt to match any query string parameters included in the URL by name. If the request is a POST, then the framework will attempt to match the contents of the POST body.
  • Method arguments are evaluated for a match by name only. The framework does not consider the type required by the method argument. For example, a URL parameter named {id} with a value of “John” will be considered a match for a method which accepts an int argument named id.
  • Action methods can be decorated with attributes which restrict the type of HTTP request they will respond to. Such attributes indicate the applicable HTTP verb to which the action will respond.

As an example of limiting the HTTP actions which a method may respond, consider the following:

Overloaded Action Method with HttpPost Attribute:

public ActionResult Edit(int id)
{
    return View();
}
[HttpPost]
public ActionResult Edit(int id, FormCollection collection)
{
    try
    {
        // TODO: Add update logic here
        return RedirectToAction("Index");
    }
    catch
    {
        return View();
    }
}
 

In the above, we find two methods named Edit. The first accepts an int named id as an argument, and the second accepts an int named id and a FormCollection (a complex type). The purpose of this overloaded method is so that a browser can:

  • Request a view with which to edit a record of some sort and then,
  • Submit the modified record values back to the site for storage.

The first Edit method, which requires only an int id argument will be called using HTTP GET, and return a view with the current representation of the data to be edited. Once the user has updated values in the view and submits the form data, an HTTP POST request is issued. The overloaded Edit method, decorated with the [HttpPost] attribute, is executed, and the modified data is persisted or otherwise processed. 

The MVC Default Route Template – Routing Walk-Thru

The route mapping assumes that the URL template specified is relative to the domain root for your site. In other words, since the entire application is hosted at http://yourdomain.com it is not necessary to include this domain root as part of the route template.

In the case of the default MVC mapping from our RouteConfig class above, the route contains the two special parameters, {controller} and {action}. In processing incoming requests, the framework appends “Controller” to the value provided for the {controller} parameter, and then searches the project for a controller class of that name. Once the proper controller has been identified, MVC next looks for a method name corresponding to the value of the {action} parameter, and then attempts to match any additional parameters with input arguments accepted by that method.

For example, if our application receives a request with the following URL:

http://mybookstore.com/books/details/25

the routing will match the default template. The string “Controller” will be appended to the “books” segment, and the runtime will set about searching the project for a class named BooksController. If the controller is located, MVC will then examine the controller for a public method named Details. If a Details method is found, MVC will attempt to find an overload which accepts a single argument named id, and then calls that method, passing in the final URL segment (“25” in this case) as an argument.

The following controller example would provide a suitable match for our incoming request:

A Simple Books Controller:

public class BooksController : Controller
{
    public ActionResult Index()
    {
        return View();
    }
    public ActionResult Details(int id)
    {
        return View();
    }
}

The incoming request would result in a call to the Details method, passing in the integer 25 as the proper id argument. The method would return the appropriate view (how MVC does this is another convention for another post – let’s stay focused on request routing for now).

Route Parameter Defaults

Notice in the RegisterRoutes method, the registration of the “Default” route also appears to assign some default values to the controller and action, parameters. These values will be used for any of these parameters if they are missing from the incoming request URL. Additionally, the id parameter is designated as optional. For example, consider the following URL:

http://mybookstore.com/books/

In this case, we have specified the Books controller, but have not specified a value for the action or id. However, this route still matches our route definition, since MVC will provide the default value specified for the action parameter (in this case, index). Since the id parameter has been made optional in our route template, MVC will again search for a controller named BooksController, but in this case, examine the controller for a method named Index which does not require an argument. Again, a match is found, and the Index method is called, returning an appropriate view (most likely a list of all the books in the database).

The MVC default route mapping also specifies a default controller to use when no controller parameter is specified; namely, the “Home” controller. In other words, incoming requests to our domain root:

http://mybookstore.com/

will also match the default project controller. In this case, the runtime will attempt to locate a controller named HomeController, then locate the Index method of that controller. Since no id parameter was provided, the Index method will be called, returning the appropriate view ( most likely, the Homepage of our site).

What Next?

As we have seen above, MVC examines an incoming URL and attempts to map each URL segment to a controller and action according to the route templates set up in the RouteConfig.MapRoutesmethod. Once a proper controller and action have been identified, any additional URL segments (for example, the optional {id} segment in our example above) are evaluated against the action method signature to determine the best parameter match for the action.

But what happens when we need to do more than just send an ID in as an argument for the desired action method? Or, what if we have one or more overloaded methods by which we wish to perform more complex queries against our data?

While we can always include query parameters as part of our URL (and in fact we will no doubt have to resort to this at various points in our application design), we can customize and extend the default routing, and exert a little more control over how how and what our application will accept in an HTTP request by customizing our routes.

While the default /controller/action/id route baked into the MVC project template is a useful start and will handle many common controller cases, it is safe to say the MVC team did not expect developers to limit their applications to this minimally-flexible, single standard. Indeed, the ASP.NET routing framework (and the corresponding routing framework used by Web API) are very flexible, and within certain limits, highly customizable.



European ASP.NET MVC Hosting :: Basic Routing in ASP.NET MVC

clock January 30, 2019 10:22 by author Scott

When getting started with ASP.NET MVC and/or the ASP.NET Web API, it can be overwhelming trying to figure out how it all works. These frameworks offer powerful features, and abstract away a good deal of pain associated with handling, routing, and responding to HTTP requests within an application. This is a great thing for seasoned developers who understand what it is the framework is doing “for” you (and how to modify that behavior, if desired). It also makes it easier for new or less-experienced folk to set up a basic site or API and watch it “just work.”

On the other hand, the abstraction can make it challenging for those new to the MVC world to understand just what is going on, and where the critical functionality they want to modify “lives.”

One of the fundamental concepts to understand when using ASP.NET MVC and/or the ASP.NET Web API is routing, which essentially defines how your application will process and respond to incoming HTTP requests.

Routing Makes it All Work

Traditional web communication architecture maps a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) to a file within the file system. For example, the following:

http://mydomain.com/mybooks/favorites.html

would tend to map to a file named favorites.html, in the directory ~/mybooks/favorites, located in the root directory for the site mydomain.com. In response to an incoming HTTP request for this resource, the contents of the file are either returned (as in the example above, as HTML) or perhaps code associated with a file is executed (if, for example, the file were a .aspx file).

Within the MVC framework, as well as the Web API*, URLs are instead mapped to specific methods which execute in response to the incoming request, generally returning either a View (MVC) or some sort of structured data (Web API) corresponding to the the requested resource. In other words, instead of pointing to actual physical resources within a file system, MVC and Web API routes instead point to an abstraction which represents the resource requested, in both cases a method which will return the requested item.

This de-coupling of the URL from the physical file system allows us to construct cleaner, more friendly URLs which are more beneficial to the user, search-engine-friendly, and (in theory) more persistent, meaning URLs associated with specific content are less likely to change, and break incoming links. 

How Routing Works in ASP.NET MVC

In MVC, the convention is to map URLs to a particular action (a method) on a particular controller. The action then executes, and (usually, but not always) returns an instance of ActionResult. The ActionResult class handles Framework logic such as rendering to HTML or JSON, and writing to the HTTP response that will be returned to the user’s browser.

Once again, I defer to the authors of ASP.NET MVC 4 (who happen to also be members of the ASP.NET team):

The most basic version of this convention would be a URL as follows:

http://mydomain/controllername/methodname

In an MVC project, this is achieved by registering route templates which establish how incoming URLs will be mapped to specific controllers and actions. A typical MVC project defines a Global.asx file, which contains a single method – Application_Start. Within this method, calls are made to various configuration methods to set up the application’s working state. One of these calls is to the RegisterRoutes method of the RouteConfig class found in the App_Start folder of the project.

Global.asx File and the RouteConfig File in a Typical MVC Project:

If we examine the Global.asx file, we find the following code:

The Default ASP.NET MVC Global.asx File:

public class MvcApplication : System.Web.HttpApplication
{
    protected void Application_Start()
    {
        AreaRegistration.RegisterAllAreas();
        WebApiConfig.Register(GlobalConfiguration.Configuration);
        FilterConfig.RegisterGlobalFilters(GlobalFilters.Filters);
        RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes(RouteTable.Routes);
        BundleConfig.RegisterBundles(BundleTable.Bundles);
    }
}

For our purposes, we are interested only in the call to RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes. As we can see, the call passes the the Routes collection of the Global RouteTable as a parameter to the RegisterRoutes method, which then populates the routes collection with pre-defined route templates for the application. The default MVC project template comes with a single pre-configured route:

The Default MVC RouteConfig Class:

public class RouteConfig
{
    public static void RegisterRoutes(RouteCollection routes)
    {
        routes.IgnoreRoute("{resource}.axd/{*pathInfo}");
        routes.MapRoute(
            name: "Default",
            url: "{controller}/{action}/{id}",
            defaults: new
            {
                controller = "Home",
                action = "Index",
                id = UrlParameter.Optional
            }
        );
    }
}

Note that any MVC application must have at least one route definition in order to function. In the above, a route template named “Default” is added to the routes collection. The items in curly braces enclose Route Parameters, and are represented by the parameter name as a placeholder between the curly braces. Route Segments are separated by forward slashes (much like a standard URL). Notice how the implied relative URL our route specifies matches the MVC convention:

~/{controller}/{action}

Route parameters can be named just about anything, however ASP.NET recognizes a few special route parameter names, in particular {controller} and {action}, and treats them differently than other route parameters.

Controller Matching

When the routing framework encounters a route parameter named {controller}, it appends the suffix “Controller” to the value of the parameter, and then scans the project for a class by that name which also implements the System.Web.Mvc.IController interface. Note that the search for a controller with a matching name is case-insensitive.

Action Matching

Once the framework has selected the proper controller, it attempts to locate an action on the controller with a name matching the {action} parameter value. The search for a matching action name is case-insensitive. If more than one action matches by name (as with multiple overloaded methods on the same controller), the framework will select the method for which the most URL parameters match method arguments by name.

Action Parameter Matching

Additional URL Parameters other than {controller} and {action} are available to be passed as arguments to the selected Action method. The framework will evaluate the input arguments of the available actions, and match them by name (case-insensitively) to the URL parameters other than {action} and {controller}. With certain restrictions, the framework will select that action with the greatest number of matching parameters.

Some things to consider:

  • The MVC framework will first match method arguments by name to URL parameters. Then, it will attempt to match any query string parameters included in the URL by name. If the request is a POST, then the framework will attempt to match the contents of the POST body.
  • Method arguments are evaluated for a match by name only. The framework does not consider the type required by the method argument. For example, a URL parameter named {id} with a value of “John” will be considered a match for a method which accepts an int argument named id.
  • Action methods can be decorated with attributes which restrict the type of HTTP request they will respond to. Such attributes indicate the applicable HTTP verb to which the action will respond.

As an example of limiting the HTTP actions which a method may respond, consider the following:

Overloaded Action Method with HttpPost Attribute:

public ActionResult Edit(int id)
{
    return View();
}
[HttpPost]
public ActionResult Edit(int id, FormCollection collection)
{
    try
    {
        // TODO: Add update logic here
        return RedirectToAction("Index");
    }
    catch
    {
        return View();
    }
}
 

In the above, we find two methods named Edit. The first accepts an int named id as an argument, and the second accepts an int named id and a FormCollection (a complex type). The purpose of this overloaded method is so that a browser can:

  • Request a view with which to edit a record of some sort and then,
  • Submit the modified record values back to the site for storage.

The first Edit method, which requires only an int id argument will be called using HTTP GET, and return a view with the current representation of the data to be edited. Once the user has updated values in the view and submits the form data, an HTTP POST request is issued. The overloaded Edit method, decorated with the [HttpPost] attribute, is executed, and the modified data is persisted or otherwise processed. 

The MVC Default Route Template – Routing Walk-Thru

The route mapping assumes that the URL template specified is relative to the domain root for your site. In other words, since the entire application is hosted at http://yourdomain.com it is not necessary to include this domain root as part of the route template.

In the case of the default MVC mapping from our RouteConfig class above, the route contains the two special parameters, {controller} and {action}. In processing incoming requests, the framework appends “Controller” to the value provided for the {controller} parameter, and then searches the project for a controller class of that name. Once the proper controller has been identified, MVC next looks for a method name corresponding to the value of the {action} parameter, and then attempts to match any additional parameters with input arguments accepted by that method.

For example, if our application receives a request with the following URL:

http://mybookstore.com/books/details/25

the routing will match the default template. The string “Controller” will be appended to the “books” segment, and the runtime will set about searching the project for a class named BooksController. If the controller is located, MVC will then examine the controller for a public method named Details. If a Details method is found, MVC will attempt to find an overload which accepts a single argument named id, and then calls that method, passing in the final URL segment (“25” in this case) as an argument.

The following controller example would provide a suitable match for our incoming request:

A Simple Books Controller:

public class BooksController : Controller
{
    public ActionResult Index()
    {
        return View();
    }
    public ActionResult Details(int id)
    {
        return View();
    }
}

The incoming request would result in a call to the Details method, passing in the integer 25 as the proper id argument. The method would return the appropriate view (how MVC does this is another convention for another post – let’s stay focused on request routing for now).

Route Parameter Defaults

Notice in the RegisterRoutes method, the registration of the “Default” route also appears to assign some default values to the controller and action, parameters. These values will be used for any of these parameters if they are missing from the incoming request URL. Additionally, the id parameter is designated as optional. For example, consider the following URL:

http://mybookstore.com/books/

In this case, we have specified the Books controller, but have not specified a value for the action or id. However, this route still matches our route definition, since MVC will provide the default value specified for the action parameter (in this case, index). Since the id parameter has been made optional in our route template, MVC will again search for a controller named BooksController, but in this case, examine the controller for a method named Index which does not require an argument. Again, a match is found, and the Index method is called, returning an appropriate view (most likely a list of all the books in the database).

The MVC default route mapping also specifies a default controller to use when no controller parameter is specified; namely, the “Home” controller. In other words, incoming requests to our domain root:

http://mybookstore.com/

will also match the default project controller. In this case, the runtime will attempt to locate a controller named HomeController, then locate the Index method of that controller. Since no id parameter was provided, the Index method will be called, returning the appropriate view ( most likely, the Homepage of our site).

What Next?

As we have seen above, MVC examines an incoming URL and attempts to map each URL segment to a controller and action according to the route templates set up in the RouteConfig.MapRoutesmethod. Once a proper controller and action have been identified, any additional URL segments (for example, the optional {id} segment in our example above) are evaluated against the action method signature to determine the best parameter match for the action.

But what happens when we need to do more than just send an ID in as an argument for the desired action method? Or, what if we have one or more overloaded methods by which we wish to perform more complex queries against our data?

While we can always include query parameters as part of our URL (and in fact we will no doubt have to resort to this at various points in our application design), we can customize and extend the default routing, and exert a little more control over how how and what our application will accept in an HTTP request by customizing our routes.

While the default /controller/action/id route baked into the MVC project template is a useful start and will handle many common controller cases, it is safe to say the MVC team did not expect developers to limit their applications to this minimally-flexible, single standard. Indeed, the ASP.NET routing framework (and the corresponding routing framework used by Web API) are very flexible, and within certain limits, highly customizable.



European ASP.NET MVC 5 Hosting :: How to Use AngularJS in ASP.NET MVC

clock November 12, 2015 20:18 by author Scott

In this short tutorial, I will show how to use AngularJS in ASP.NET MVC. I hope that you enjoy this short tutorial and this is helpful.

Application Inception

While Angular is a framework for the modern Single Page App, I have found that a lot of our MVC applications call for a collection of these “ng-apps”. In this instance they typically don’t include the client side routing.

Please See Sample Application

The image to the right is the file structure for a sample airplane scheduling app. There are three sections:

  Home (simple js) - A simple calendar showing flights
  Details (angular) - Information about a single flight
  Manage (angular) - A place for settings, pilots, etc...

Bundle Configuration

While asset bundling is a great feature of ASP.Net, it is easy to get carried away. When I came on there were a lot of projects that just included all the js files for the entire application in a single ScriptBundle. This was one of the first places I set my sights.

I decided that a lot of the services would be shared, so they could go in their own Angular module and in their own ASP Bundle. Then each mini-app could get it’s own module and bundle. Lets take a look at theBundleConfiguration.cs file.

using System.Web.Optimization;

namespace Jobney.App.Web
{
    public class BundleConfig
    {
        public static void RegisterBundles(BundleCollection bundles)
        {
            bundles.Add(new ScriptBundle("~/bundles/js-base").Include(
                        "~/Scripts/libs/jquery-{version}.js",
                        "~/Scripts/libs/bootstrap.js",
                        "~/Scripts/libs/select2.js",
                        "~/Scripts/libs/bootstrap-datepicker.js",
                        "~/Scripts/libs/respond.js",
                        "~/Scripts/libs/lodash.js",
                        "~/Scripts/endless.js"
                        ));

            bundles.Add(new ScriptBundle("~/bundles/ng-base").Include(
                        "~/Scripts/libs/angular/angular.js",
                        "~/Scripts/libs/angular/ui-router.js",
                        "~/Scripts/libs/angular/ui-bootstrap-custom-0.9.0.js",
                        "~/Scripts/libs/angular/ui-bootstrap-custom-tpls-0.9.0.js",
                        "~/Scripts/libs/angular/angular-animate.js",
                        "~/Scripts/libs/angular/toaster.js"
                        ));

            bundles.Add(new ScriptBundle("~/bundles/ng-shared-services")
                .IncludeDirectory("~/Scripts/apps/shared/", "*.js"));

            bundles.Add(new ScriptBundle("~/bundles/ng-manage-app")
                .IncludeDirectory("~/Scripts/apps/manage/","*.js"));

            bundles.Add(new ScriptBundle("~/bundles/ng-tripinfo-app")
                .Include(
                    "~/Scripts/libs/jquery-ui.js",
                    "~/Scripts/libs/angular/sortable.js",
                    "~/Scripts/libs/angular/select2.js",
                    "~/Scripts/libs/angular/ngAutocomplete.js"
                )
                .IncludeDirectory("~/Scripts/apps/tripinfo/", "*.js"));

            bundles.Add(new StyleBundle("~/Content/css/base").Include(
                      "~/Content/css/bootstrap.css",
                      "~/Content/css/datepicker3.css",
                      "~/Content/css/select2.css",
                      "~/Content/css/toaster.css",
                      "~/Content/css/select2-bootstrap.css",
                      "~/Content/css/font-awesome.css"
                    ));
            bundles.Add(new StyleBundle("~/Content/css/custom").Include(
                      "~/Content/css/endless.css",
                      "~/Content/css/endless-skin.css",
                      "~/Content/css/site.css"));
        }
    }
}

Then using the bundles, say in the manage app, it would look like this:

@model Jobney.Casm.Web.Models.ManageDataBootstrapper
<div data-ng-app="Jobney.Casm.ManageApp" data-ng-controller="ManageAppCtrl">
    <ul class="tab-bar grey-tab">
        <!-- content here -->
    </ul>

    <div data-ui-view></div>
</div>

@section scripts
{
    <!-- Start ng-base -->
    @Scripts.Render("~/bundles/ng-base")

    <!-- Start ng-shared-services -->
    @Html.Partial("_SharedServices")

    <!-- Start ng-manage-app -->
    @Html.Partial("_ManageAppSetup", Model)
}

Services Need Data And Data Needs Urls

As an ASP.Net MVC developer, you are probably used to letting the routing engine create urls for you when you need them. And why not? Who knows what crazy routing constraints the client/pm/other developers decided needed to be in your application. And with Razor helpers, this is pretty easy. Angular shouldn’t have to try hard to figure out those rules. So how do we combine these two worlds?

@section scripts
{
    app.constant('RouteConfig', {
        base: '@Url.Content("~/")',
        project: {
            all: '@Url.Action("All", "Project")',
            details: '@Url.Action("Details", "Project")',
            post: '@Url.Action("Post", "Project")'
        },
        vendor: {
            category: '@Url.Action("GetByCategory", "Vendor")',
            details: '@Url.Action("GetById", "Vendor")',
            getProductRating: '@Url.Action("GetByProduct", "Rating")'
        },
        resolve: function (url) {
            return this.base + url;
        }
    });
}

Such http. Many calls.

In the manage app we are going to need some data. When the situation calls for it, I don’t mind sending that data down with the app. I think I took this idea from John Papa or one of those PluralSight authors. Basically, I just use JSON.Net to serialize my dataset on the page. Let’s take a look at it.

@model Jobney.Casm.Web.Models.ManageDataBootstrapper

<script>
    (function () {
        'use strict';

        var app = angular.module('Jobney.Casm.ManageApp', [
            'ui.router',
            'ui.bootstrap',
            'Jobney.Casm.SharedServices'
        ]);

        app.factory('BootstrappedData', [function() {
            var service = {};

            service.pilots = @Html.Raw(Model.Pilots);
            service.passengers = @Html.Raw(Model.Passengers);
            service.airplanes = @Html.Raw(Model.Airplanes);
            service.settings = @Html.Raw(Model.Settings);

            return service;
        }]);       

    })();
</script>

@Scripts.Render("~/bundles/ng-manage-app")

 



European ASP.NET MVC 4 Hosting :: Tips on How To Improve MVC Application Performance

clock December 10, 2013 07:32 by author Patrick

In this post we will cover a few tips and tricks to improve ASP.NET MVC Application Performance. While working on this site, I have tried to improve page loading speeds as much as possible. There are a lot of tricks that you can do to improve the speed of your site. I have constantly been learning new things by delving into the world of site performance.

These are a few of the steps that I took to speed up my site:

Run in Release mode

Make sure your production application always runs in release mode in the web.config

  <compilation debug="false"></compilation>

or change this in the machine.config on the production servers

<configuration>
    <system.web>
          <deployment retail="true"></deployment>
    </system.web>
</configuration>

Only use the View Engines that you require

protected void Application_Start()
{
    ViewEngines.Engines.Clear();
    ViewEngines.Engines.Add(new RazorViewEngine());
}

Use the CachedDataAnnotationsModelMetadataProvider

ModelMetadataProviders.Current = new CachedDataAnnotationsModelMetadataProvider();

Avoid passing null models to views

Because a NullReferenceException will be thrown when the expression gets evaluated, which .NET then has to handle gracefully.

// BAD
public ActionResult Profile()
{
    return View();
}

// GOOD
public ActionResult Profile()
{
    return View(new Profile());
}

Use OutputCacheAttribute when appropriate

For content that does not change often, use the OutputCacheAttribute to save unnecessary and action executions.

[OutputCache(VaryByParam = "none", Duration = 3600)]
public ActionResult Categories()
{
    return View(new Categories());
}

Use HTTP Compression

<system.webserver>
<urlcompression dodynamiccompression="true" dostaticcompression="true" dynamiccompressionbeforecache="true"></urlcompression>
</system.webserver>

Remove unused HTTP Modules

If you run into any problems after removing them, try adding them back in.

<httpmodules>
      <remove name="WindowsAuthentication"></remove>
      <remove name="PassportAuthentication"></remove>
      <remove name="Profile"></remove>
      <remove name="AnonymousIdentification"></remove>
</httpmodules>

Flush your HTML as soon as it is generated

<pages buffer="true" enableviewstate="false"></pages>

Turn off Tracing

<configuration>
     <system.web>
          <trace enabled="false"></trace>
     </system.web>
</configuration>

Remove HTTP Headers

This is more of a security thing

<system.web>
    <httpruntime enableversionheader="false"></httpruntime>
</system.web>

<httpprotocol>
 <customheaders>
  <remove name="X-Powered-By"></remove>
 </customheaders>
</httpprotocol>

Uninstall the URL Rewrite module if not required

This saves CPU cycles used to check the server variable for each request.

Go to "Add or Remove Programs" and find "Microsoft URL Rewrite Module" and select uninstall.



European ASP.NET MVC 4 Hosting :: How to Setup Scheduler in ASP.NET MVC 4

clock November 27, 2013 06:02 by author Scott

As always, we try to keep our Scheduler .NET control up-to-date and easy to use. Nowadays it supports all the latest .NET frameworks and IDEs, including ASP.NET 4.5 and Visual Studio 2012.

With regard to all recent updates, your remarks and fixed bugs, we decided to give you further setup instructions. This time we explain how Scheduler .NET setup process can be reduced to only 5 steps that you can cover in less than 5 minutes.

This article represents a new step-by-step guide on how to create a simple yet elegant Google-like calendar/scheduler in ASP.NET MVC3/MVC4 Razor (C#).

Follow the steps described below and you’ll get a nice-looking scheduler in ASP.NET with a rich user interface. It provides the following features:

- Day, week and month views 
- Convenient drag-and-drop
- Highlighting of the current day
- Ajax loading
- Easy data load and save

 

 

Create a New Project

Create a new project in Visual Studio by selecting ASP.NET MVC 3/ MVC4 Web Application from the list. The project template should be empty. The view engine is Razor by default.

We will create a simple scheduler in C#.

Set Up the Database

The next step is to set up a database. Right-click on ‘Your_project_name’ (e.g. SimpleScheduler) ->  Add -> Add ASP.NET Folder -> App_Data -> Add New Item and name it “Sample.mdf”. 

A new database has been created. 

Note: for ASP.NET MVC4 project the folder App_Data is created automatically.

Go to the Server Explorer to create a new Table “Events”. Right-click on the Table folder to add the following query. It creates a table with all necessary fields including primary key and identity column:

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[Events](
  [id] int IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL,
  [text] nvarchar(250) NULL,
  [start_date] datetime NOT NULL,
  [end_date] datetime NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (id)
)

Note: To see the updates, remember to refresh connection in the Server Explorer.

Scheduler Setup via NuGet

Right-click on you project name in the Solution Explorer to select “Manage NuGet Packages…”: 

For quick search type  ‘dhtmlx’ in the input. In a moment you’ll see DHMTLX Scheduler .NET library and the available samples: 

To save your time, install MVC3 Sample first. It contains the basic template of Scheduler .NET calendar control. The template includes a controller with three actions (initialization, data load and save) and view with a calendar.

Thus, the installed sample updates the project with:

- /Controllers/CalendarController.cs  -- a controller that needs updating;
- /Views/Calendar/Index.cshtml   -- a calendar page that requires no changes;
- /Models/CalendarEvent.cs  -- a sample model that can be deleted. 

Create Scheduler Model

The installed MVC3 Sample also contains a sample class model. You don’t need it and can delete it.

To create a new model right-click on the folder Models -> Add New Item. In the new opened window choose LINQ to SQL Classes and name it Sample.dbml. Double click it to open a visual editor and drag the Event table from the Server Explorer to the Editor.

Updating a Controller

As stated above, the controller has been created when you installed MVC3 Sample. It contains action templates for data load and save, working with static data.

Let’s update the methods in the CalendarController.cs to connect the controller with the newly created Model. 

First we need to load data from the Model. 

The default data load before update looks as follows:

public ContentResult Data()
{
    var data = new SchedulerAjaxData(
        new List<CalendarEvent>{
            new CalendarEvent{
                id = 1,
                text = "Sample Event",
                start_date = new DateTime(2012, 09, 03, 6, 00, 00),
                end_date = new DateTime(2012, 09, 03, 8, 00, 00)
            },
            ...
        });
    return (ContentResult)data;
}

Let’s update the DataAction to load data from SampleDataContext:

public ContentResult Data()
{
            var data = new SchedulerAjaxData(new SampleDataContext().Events);
            return (ContentResult)data;
}

Secondly, enable data save. The data save set by default is:

public ContentResult Save(int? id, FormCollection actionValues)
{
    var action = new DataAction(actionValues);             

    try
    {
        var changedEvent = (CalendarEvent)DHXEventsHelper.Bind(typeof(CalendarEvent), actionValues);
        switch (action.Type)
        {
            case DataActionTypes.Insert:
                //do insert
                action.TargetId = changedEvent.id;//assign postoperational id
                break;
            case DataActionTypes.Delete:
                //do delete
                break;
            default:// "update"                         
                //do update
                break;
        }
    }
}

Data save parses the request, contains a switch case for all types of operations and returns operation success. Let’s update it to enable save of actual changes:

public ContentResult Save(int? id, FormCollection actionValues)
{
     var action = new DataAction(actionValues); 

     var changedEvent = (Event)DHXEventsHelper.Bind(typeof(Event), actionValues); 

     var data = new SampleDataContext(); 

     try
     {
          switch (action.Type)
          {
              case DataActionTypes.Insert: // define here your Insert logic
                  data.Events.InsertOnSubmit(changedEvent);                             
                  break;
              case DataActionTypes.Delete: // define here your Delete logic
                  changedEvent = data.Events.SingleOrDefault(ev => ev.id == action.SourceId);
                  data.Events.DeleteOnSubmit(changedEvent);
                  break;
              default:// "update" // define here your Update logic
                  var eventToUpdate = data.Events.SingleOrDefault(ev => ev.id == action.SourceId);
                  DHXEventsHelper.Update(eventToUpdate, changedEvent, new List<string>() { "id" });//update all properties, except for id
                  break;
              }
              data.SubmitChanges();
              action.TargetId = changedEvent.id;
         }
     }
}

We have changed the Model class used in the method. We’ve also added the required methods from LINQ to SQL and a helper that updates all object properties in the data base (except for the id).

Notes.

The initial class model in the action used to be:

public ContentResult Save(int? id, FormCollection actionValues)
        {
            var action = new DataAction(actionValues);

If a new event is added to the data base, an id assigned to the new event in the data base should be returned to the client. It returns TargetId of the object itself.

action.TargetId = changedEvent.id;

This action is implemented after changes are submitted: data.SubmitChanges();

The full code will look like this:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;
using System.Web.Mvc; 

using DHTMLX.Scheduler;
using DHTMLX.Common;
using DHTMLX.Scheduler.Data;
using SimpleScheduler.Models;
namespace SimpleScheduler.Controllers
{
    public class CalendarController : Controller
    {
        public ActionResult Index()
        {
            var scheduler = new DHXScheduler(this); 

            scheduler.Skin = DHXScheduler.Skins.Terrace;
            scheduler.InitialDate = new DateTime(2012, 09, 03); 

            scheduler.Config.multi_day = true;//render multiday events 

            scheduler.LoadData = true;
            scheduler.EnableDataprocessor = true; 

            return View(scheduler);
        } 

        public ContentResult Data()
        {
            var data = new SchedulerAjaxData(
                    new SampleDataContext().Events
                ); 

            return (ContentResult)data;
        } 

        public ContentResult Save(int? id, FormCollection actionValues)
        {
            var action = new DataAction(actionValues);
            var changedEvent = (Event)DHXEventsHelper.Bind(typeof(Event), actionValues);
            var data = new SampleDataContext(); 

            try
            {
                switch (action.Type)
                {
                    case DataActionTypes.Insert: // define here your Insert logic
                        data.Events.InsertOnSubmit(changedEvent); 

                        break;
                    case DataActionTypes.Delete: // define here your Delete logic
                        changedEvent = data.Events.SingleOrDefault(ev => ev.id == action.SourceId);
                        data.Events.DeleteOnSubmit(changedEvent);
                        break;
                    default:// "update" // define here your Update logic
                        var eventToUpdate = data.Events.SingleOrDefault(ev => ev.id == action.SourceId);
                        DHXEventsHelper.Update(eventToUpdate, changedEvent, new List<string>() { "id" });//update all properties, except for id
                        break;
                }
                data.SubmitChanges();
                action.TargetId = changedEvent.id;
            }
            catch (Exception a)
            {
                action.Type = DataActionTypes.Error;
            }
            return (new AjaxSaveResponse(action));
        }
    }
}

Finally, update the route from ‘Home’ to ‘Calendar’ in Global.asax.cs as follows:

routes.MapRoute(
              "Default", // Route name
              "{controller}/{action}/{id}", // URL with parameters
              new { controller = "Calendar", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional } // Parameter defaults
          );

Note: ASP.NET MVC4 project creates App_Start directory with configuration files. The controller route is changed to "Calendar" in Route.Config.cs:

routes.MapRoute(
                name: "Default",
                url: "{controller}/{action}/{id}",
                defaults: new { controller = "Calendar", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional }
            );

That’s it! The scheduler for ASP.NET MVC3/MVC4 Razor is ready to use.



European ASP.NET MVC Hosting :: How to Send Email Using ASP.NET MVC

clock November 12, 2013 11:53 by author Scott

Introduction

Sending email is a very common task in any web application for many purposes. In daily development we need to add some mail functionality to our project to send e-mail to the customer or another in our web site.

Using the code

For sending mail from ASP.NET MVC we use the "System.Net.Mail" namespace. Let's see how to do this.

Open Visual Studio

"File" -> "New" -> "Project..."

Choose Visual C#- Web then select ASP.NET MVC4 Web Application

Add a new Internet Application then click OK

Step 1: Create a new Model Class in the model folder.

The following is the code for the new Model

MailModel.cs

public class MailModel

{
   
 public string From { get; set; }
   
 public string To { get; set; }
   
 public string Subject { get; set; }
   
 public string Body { get; set; }
}

Step 2: Create a New SendMailerController in the Controller folder.

The following is the code for the design of the new Controller.

SendMailerController.cs

using System;

using System.Collections.Generic;
using
 System.Linq;
using
 System.Net.Mail;
using
 System.Web;
using
 System.Web.Mvc; 

namespace SendMail.Controllers

{
   
 public class SendMailerController : Controller
    {
       
 //
       
 // GET: /SendMailer/  
       
 public ActionResult Index()
        {
           
 return View();
        } 
 
        [HttpPost]
       
 public ViewResult Index(SendMail.Models.MailModel _objModelMail)
       {
           
 if (ModelState.IsValid)
            {
               
 MailMessage mail = new MailMessage();
                mail.To.Add(_objModelMail.To);
                mail.From =
 new MailAddress(_objModelMail.From);
                mail.Subject = _objModelMail.Subject;
               
 string Body = _objModelMail.Body;
                mail.Body = Body;
                mail.IsBodyHtml =
 true;
               
 SmtpClient smtp = new SmtpClient();
                smtp.Host =
 "smtp.gmail.com";
                smtp.Port = 587;
                smtp.UseDefaultCredentials =
 false;
                smtp.Credentials =
 new System.Net.NetworkCredential
                ("username",
 "password");// Enter seders User name and password
                smtp.EnableSsl =
 true;
                smtp.Send(mail);
               
 return View("Index", _objModelMail);
            }
           
 else
            {
               
 return View();
            }
        }
    }

}

Index.cshtml

@model SendMail.Models.MailModel
@{
ViewBag.Title =
 "Index";
}
<h2>Index</h2>
<fieldset>
<legend>
Send Email
</legend>
@using (Html.BeginForm())
{
@Html.ValidationSummary()
<
p>From:
 </p>
<p>
@Html.TextBoxFor(m=>m.From)</p>
 <p>To:
 </p>
<p>
@Html.TextBoxFor(m=>m.To)</p>
<p>Subject:
 </p>
<p>
@Html.TextBoxFor(m=>m.Subject)</p>
 <p>Body:
 </p>
<p>
@Html.TextAreaFor(m=>m.Body)</p>
<input
 type ="submit" value ="Send" />
}
  </fieldset>

In the code above we have the following 3 fields:

  • To
  • Subject
  • Message

When the user clicks the "Send" button, the mail will be sent to the specified mail address that you provide in the To TextBox. So add the following code for the [HttpPost] Method for the send button click.

SendMailerController.cs

using System;

using System.Collections.Generic;
using
 System.Linq;
using
 System.Net.Mail;
using
 System.Web;
using
 System.Web.Mvc; 

namespace SendMail.Controllers

{
   
 public class SendMailerController : Controller
    {
       
 //
       
 // GET: /SendMailer/ 
 
       
 public ActionResult Index()
        {
           
 return View();
        } 

        [HttpPost]

       public ViewResult Index(SendMail.Models.MailModel _objModelMail)
        {
           
 if (ModelState.IsValid)
            {
               
 MailMessage mail = new MailMessage();
                mail.To.Add(_objModelMail.To);
                mail.From =
 new MailAddress(_objModelMail.From);
               mail.Subject = _objModelMail.Subject;
               
 string Body = _objModelMail.Body;
                mail.Body = Body;
                mail.IsBodyHtml =
 true;
               
 SmtpClient smtp = new SmtpClient();
                smtp.Host =
 "smtp.gmail.com";
                smtp.Port = 587;
                smtp.UseDefaultCredentials =
 false;
                smtp.Credentials =
 new System.Net.NetworkCredential
                ("username",
 "password");// Enter seders User name and password 
 
                smtp.EnableSsl =
 true;
                smtp.Send(mail);
               
 return View("Index", _objModelMail);
            }
          
 else
            {
               
 return View();
            }
        }
    }

}

Understanding the Code

In the code above we have a:

ViewResult Index(SendMail.Models.MailModel _objModelMail)

user defined method. In this method, we have a parameter of our MailModel object. Now we create a MailMessage object.

MailMessage mail = new MailMessage();

MailMessage is the main class for sending mail, it is in the System.Net.Mail namespace.

The MailMessage class has properties, the important ones are:

  • To
  • From
  • Cc
  • Bcc
  • Subject
  • Body

So we add our data into specified properties.

For sending mail we need a SMTP Server, so in ASP.Net we have the SmtpClient class, we set the SMTP settings using the properties of that class.

SmtpClient smtp = new SmtpClient();

The SMTPClient class has these basic properties:

  • Host
  • Port
  • UseDefaultCredential
  • Credentials
  • EnableSsl
  • Send

smtp.Host = "smtp.gmail.com";
smtp.Port = 587;
smtp.UseDefaultCredentials = false;
smtp.Credentials = new System.Net.NetworkCredential("username", "password");
smtp.EnableSsl = true;

In the code above is:

smtp.Host = "smtp.gmail.com";

That is the SMTP Host address of Gmail, if you want to use any other SMTP host service then please add a different SMTP host protocol, for example for Hotmail it is smtp.live.com.

For example, in:

Smtp.Port=587

587 is the port for Gmail, so for any other service port you need to change the port correspondingly.

smtp.Credentials = new System.Net.NetworkCredential("username""password");

Smtp.Credentials specifies the Network Crendentials of your Gmail id so please add your username and password instead of ("username", "password");

The following is for a secure mail server, so you enable your SSL layer.

smtp.EnableSsl = true;

Smtp.Send sends the mail so please add your MailMesssage object here. Then, based on the properties, your mail will be sent



European ASP.NET MVC 4 Hosting :: Preventing Cross Site Scripting Attacks in ASP.NET MVC 4

clock November 8, 2013 08:14 by author Scott

A website is exposed to various types of attacks and one of the most common types of attack is what is known as Cross Site Scripting (XSS). In a cross site scripting attack, malicious markup and script is entered in the web pages that are viewed by other users. If proper care is not taken to filter this malicious piece of markup, the script gets stored in the system and also rendered on web pages. Depending on the script injected by the hacker it can cause damage ranging from annoying popups to stolen credentials to accessing data stored in cookies. Therefore, it is important for ASP.NET MVC developers to prevent these types of attacks. Luckily, ASP.NET MVC offers a helping hand in safeguarding your websites. This article discusses some of the basics involved in the process.

What is Cross Site Scripting Attack?

In order to understand what a cross site scripting attack is, let's develop a simple ASP.NET MVC website that accepts some user input. Suppose that you are developing a blog engine and users are allowed to leave comments on blog posts. The following figure shows how the comments might be accepted:

As you might have guessed, the user can enter any text in the textbox and the textarea, including HTML markup tags and script fragments! Once the form is submitted the posted data is saved in the database as shown below:

public ActionResult SaveData(FormCollection form)

{
   
BlogEntities1 db = new BlogEntities1();
   
Comment comment = new Comment();
    comment
.UserName = form["username"];
    comment
.UserComment = form["usercomment"];
    comment
.PostedOn = DateTime.Now;
    db
.Comments.Add(comment);
    db
.SaveChanges();
   
return View("Index");
}

As shown above, the form is submitted to the SaveData() action method. The SaveData() method saves the data in a SQL Server database table named Comments. So far so good. Now assume that a use enters the following text in the comments textarea:

<h1>Hello   World!</h1>
<script>
alert('Cross   site scripting attack!');
</script>  

When such a user posts the above content it gets saved in the database. Later when this saved content is rendered on a web page it executes the script!

What the above example illustrates is a very mild version of a cross site scripting attack. Imagine what would happen if a clever hacker loads a malicious script from some different location and stole end user cookies or loaded undesirable content. That is why it is important for you to prevent cross site scripting attacks.

Note: 
By default ASP.NET 4.5 throws an exception if potentially dangerous content is detected in the request. However, you may need to deviate from this default mechanism in certain cases. In certain legitimate cases it is perfectly acceptable for the user to submit markup. For example, a web page where a blog owner enters the content of a blog post should accept HTML tags. In such cases you can skip the default checking performed by ASP.NET. You can either set requestValidationMode in web.config or use the [ValidateInput] attribute on action methods.

Preventing Cross Site Scripting Attacks

Most of the cross site scripting attacks can be prevented if you encode all the user input properly. You need to ensure that strings are encoded properly at two distinct places as far as ASP.NET MVC applications are concerned:

- Views
- Controllers or classes

In order to encode strings in views you can use the Html.Encode() method as shown below:

<%= Html.Encode(c.UserComment) %>

As you can see the view that displays the user comment now encodes the comment using the Html.Encode() method; this way all of the special characters such as <, > and & are encoded properly. For example, once Encode() method is in place the same malicious input by the end user is encoded and then rendered on the page as shown below:

As you can see the script is no longer executed even if the comment saved in the database contains the <script> tag. Instead the HTML markup is encoded and then displayed on the page.

There is also a shortcut to using the Html.Encode(), you can use <%: and %> block instead of <%= and %>. The following code shows how:

<%: c.UserComment %>

The <%: and %> block HTML encodes the string and then emits on the page.

The above code takes care of displaying content on the page by HTML encoding it. Here the encoding happens at the View level but the database still contains the malicious markup and script. Wouldn't it be nice if you HTML encode the content before saving it into the database? You can do so in your controllers or other classes using the Server.HtmlEncode() method.

comment.UserComment   = Server.HtmlEncode(form["usercomment"]);
...
db.SaveChanges();
...

As you can see the HtmlEncode() method of Server object accepts the raw string and returns an HTML encoded version of the same. The database now stores the HTML encoded version of the comments rather than the raw version. If you need to decode the HTML encoded version back you can use Server.HtmlDecode() method.

In addition to the HTML output displayed on a web page, you may also consider encoding attributes and URLs. Encoding attribute values is important if you are dynamically changing them based on user input. For example, you might be accepting a user's website URL and then setting the href attribute of an anchor tag dynamically. In such cases it is better to encode attribute values using the Html.AttributeEncode() method. On the same lines you can encode URL values using the  Url.Encode() method.

Using AntiXssEncoder to Encode Strings

The techniques to prevent cross site scripting attacks that we covered so far are traditional techniques that have roots in the core ASP.NET framework. In some cases where security is extremely important you may want to use an even more secure technique of encoding. Luckily, System.Web.Security.AntiXss namespace provides a class - AntiXssEncoder - that can be used to encode HTML content and attribute values. The major difference between the default encoder used by ASP.NET and the AntiXssEncoder class is that the former uses a blacklist of a set of prohibited characters whereas the later uses a whitelist of a set of allowed characters making it more secure.

The following code shows how AntiXssEncoder class can be used in a controller:

public   ActionResult SaveData(FormCollection form)
{
     BlogEntities1 db = new BlogEntities1();
     Comment comment = new Comment();
 comment.UserName   = AntiXssEncoder.HtmlEncode(form["username"], false);   comment.UserComment =   AntiXssEncoder.HtmlEncode(form["usercomment"], false);    comment.PostedOn =   DateTime.Now;
     db.Comments.Add(comment);
     db.SaveChanges();
     return View("Index");
}

As you can see, AntiXssEncoder class has static methods such as HtmlEncode() and HtmlAttributeEncode() that can be used to encode form data.

By default, methods such as Server.HtmlEncode() use the HttpEncoder class for performing the encoding. You can override this default with the AntiXssEncoder class by adding the following markup in the web.config file:

<httpRuntime encoderType="System.Web.Security.AntiXss.AntiXssEncoder" />

As shown above, the encoderType attribute of the <httpRuntime> tag is set to System.Web.Security.AntiXss.AntiXssEncoder so that the default encoder class is now set to AntiXssEncoder.



European ASP.NET MVC 4 Hosting - Amsterdam :: How To Build async Unit of Work with MVC 4

clock October 8, 2013 12:06 by author Ronny

In the RavenDB mailing list, How to combine the standard unit of work pattern of working with RavenDB in MVC applications with async. In particular, the problematic code was:

public class HomeController : Controller
   {
        public IAsyncDocumentSession Db { get; set; }
        public async Task<ActionResult> Index()
       {
            var person = new Person {Name = "Khalid Abuhakmeh"};
            await Db.StoreAsync(person);     

          return View(person);
       }
           protected override void OnActionExecuting(ActionExecutingContext filterContext)
       {
           Db = MvcApplication.DocumentStore.OpenAsyncSession();
           base.OnActionExecuting(filterContext);
       }

       protected override void OnActionExecuted(ActionExecutedContext filterContext)
       {
           Db.SaveChangesAsync()
               .ContinueWith(x => { });
           base.OnActionExecuted(filterContext);
       }
    lic class Person
       {
           public string Id { get; set; }
           public string Name { get; set; }
       }
   }

As you probably noticed, the problem Db.SaveChangesAsync(). We want to execute the save changes in an async manner, but we don’t want to do that in a way that would block the thread. The current code just assume the happy path, and any error would be ignored. That ain’t right. If we were using Web API, this would be trivially easy, but we aren’t. So let us see what can be done about it.

I created a new MVC 4 application and wrote the following code:

As you can see, I have a break point after the await, which means that when that break point is hit, I’ll be able to see what is responsible for handling async calls in MVC4. When the breakpoint was hit, I looked at the call stack, and saw:

 

Not very useful, right? But we can fix that:

And now we get:

This is a whole bunch of stuff that doesn’t really help, I am afraid. But then I thought about putting the breakpoint before the await, which gave me:

And this means that I can check the code here. I got the code and started digging. At first I thought that I couldn’t do it, but then I discovered that I could. See, all you have to do is to create you own async action invoker, like so:

 public class UnitOfWorkAsyncActionInvoker : AsyncControllerActionInvoker
   
{
  
     protected override IAsyncResult BeginInvokeActionMethod(
  
         ControllerContext controllerContext,
  
         ActionDescriptor actionDescriptor,
  
         IDictionary<string, object> parameters, AsyncCallback callback,
  
         object state)
  
    {
  
         return base.BeginInvokeActionMethod(controllerContext, actionDescriptor, parameters,
 
                                             result => DoSomethingAsyncAfterTask().ContinueWith(task => callback(task)),
 
                                             state);
 
     }
 
     public async Task DoSomethingAsyncAfterTask()
 
     {
 
         await Task.Delay(1000);
 
     }
  
}
And then register it :

   DependencyResolver.SetResolver(type =>
 
     {
 
         if (type == typeof (IAsyncActionInvoker))
 
             return new UnitOfWorkAsyncActionInvoker();
 
         return null;
 
     }, type => Enumerable.Empty<object>());

Note: Except for doing a minimum of F5 in the debugger, I have neither tested nor verified this code. It appears to do what I want it to, and since I am only getting to this because a customer asked about this in the mailing list, that is about as much investigation time that I can dedicate to it.

 



European ASP.NET MVC 4 Hosting - Amsterdam :: Implementing a Custom IPrincipal in ASP.NET MVC 4 Internet Project

clock April 16, 2013 10:49 by author Scott

This article explains a simple tip on how to customized the IPrincipal used in ASP.NET MVC4 internet application project template. You can try this tip if you want to attach additional information on the IPrincipal (Controller.User) for some purposes.

This tip is based from the solution I used in implementing custom identity in my ASP.NET MVC 3 project which I got from this thread: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1064271/asp-net-mvc-set-custom-iidentity-or-iprincipal.

The main solution is almost the same from the said thread but with just a few tweaks required to set data to additional IPrincipal properties when OAuthWebSecurity is used as authentication method.  

Initially ASP.NET MVC 4 internet project template is configured to use both WebMatrix.WebSecurity (for local accounts) and OAuthWebSecurity (for external site accounts) for authentication. Also accounts data are getting saved in a UserProfile table which only have properties for user ID and username, and some predefined webpages_TABLES. 

This initial setup is not enough for us to achieve our goal: that is to attach additional information in the IPrincipal. In this example we will going to need to add the first name and last name info of the user but you can add any data to suit your needs.

We will need first a storage of the additional data we want to attach. To do this you can just simply add properties on the UserProfile class defined in AccountModels.cs. Or use any table then modify the InitializeSimpleMembershipAttribute.cs from the Filters folder and set your DBContext and table name:

public SimpleMembershipInitializer()
{
    Database.SetInitializer<YourDBContext>(null);

    try
    {
      using (var context = new UsersContext())
      {
        if (!context.Database.Exists())
        {
          // Create the SimpleMembership database without Entity Framework migration schema
          ((IObjectContextAdapter)context).ObjectContext.CreateDatabase();
        }
      }

      WebSecurity.InitializeDatabaseConnection("DefaultConnection", "YourDesiredTable",
              "UserId", "UserName", autoCreateTables: true);
    }
    catch (Exception ex)
    {
      throw new InvalidOperationException("The ASP.NET Simple Membership database could " +
        "not be initialized. For more information, please see " +
        "http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=256588", ex);
    }
}

Another way is to leave the SimpleMembershipInitializer as it is and check this tutorial: http://www.asp.net/mvc/tutorials/mvc-4/using-oauth-providers-with-mvc 

If your data storage is now ready we can now start creating custom IPrincipal: 

public interface ICustomPrincipal : System.Security.Principal.Iprincipal
{
    string FirstName { get; set; }

    string LastName { get; set; }
}
public class CustomPrincipal : IcustomPrincipal
{
    public IIdentity Identity { get; private set; }

    public CustomPrincipal(string username)
      {
            this.Identity = new GenericIdentity(username);
      }

      public bool IsInRole(string role)
      {
            return Identity != null && Identity.IsAuthenticated &&
               !string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(role) && Roles.IsUserInRole(Identity.Name, role);
      }

      public string FirstName { get; set; }

      public string LastName { get; set; }

      public string FullName { get { return FirstName + " " + LastName; } }
}

public class CustomPrincipalSerializedModel
{
    public int Id { get; set; }

    public string FirstName { get; set; }

    public string LastName { get; set; }
}

Then in the AccountController class, add this method. We will need this method to serialize the user data and attach it in a cookie: 

public void CreateAuthenticationTicket(string username) {      

      var authUser = Repository.Find(u => u.Username == username); 
      CustomPrincipalSerializedModel serializeModel = new CustomPrincipalSerializedModel();     

      serializeModel.FirstName = authUser.FirstName;
      serializeModel.LastName = authUser.LastName;
      JavaScriptSerializer serializer = new JavaScriptSerializer();
      string userData = serializer.Serialize(serializeModel);     

      FormsAuthenticationTicket authTicket = new FormsAuthenticationTicket(
        1,username,DateTime.Now,DateTime.Now.AddHours(8),false,userData);
      string encTicket = FormsAuthentication.Encrypt(authTicket);
      HttpCookie faCookie = new HttpCookie(FormsAuthentication.FormsCookieName, encTicket);
      Response.Cookies.Add(faCookie);
}

Call the above method: From the ExternalLoginCallback method: 

public ActionResult ExternalLoginCallback(string returnUrl)
{
      AuthenticationResult result = OAuthWebSecurity.VerifyAuthentication(
        Url.Action("ExternalLoginCallback", new { ReturnUrl = returnUrl }));
      if (!result.IsSuccessful)
      {
        return RedirectToAction("ExternalLoginFailure");
      }

      if (OAuthWebSecurity.Login(result.Provider, result.ProviderUserId, createPersistentCookie: true))
      {
        CreateAuthenticationTicket(OAuthWebSecurity.GetUserName(
                        result.Provider, result.ProviderUserId));
        return RedirectToLocal(returnUrl);
      }

      if (User.Identity.IsAuthenticated)
      {
        // If the current user is logged in add the new account
        OAuthWebSecurity.CreateOrUpdateAccount(result.Provider, result.ProviderUserId, User.Identity.Name);
        CreateAuthenticationTicket(User.Identity.Name);
        return RedirectToLocal(returnUrl);
      }
      else
      {
        // User is new, ask for their desired membership name
        string loginData = OAuthWebSecurity.SerializeProviderUserId(result.Provider, result.ProviderUserId);
        ViewBag.ProviderDisplayName = OAuthWebSecurity.GetOAuthClientData(result.Provider).DisplayName;
        ViewBag.ReturnUrl = returnUrl;
        return View("ExternalLoginConfirmation",
          new RegisterExternalLoginModel { UserName = result.UserName, ExternalLoginData = loginData });
      }
}

In Register method: 

public ActionResult Register(RegisterModel model)
{
  if (ModelState.IsValid)
  {
    // Attempt to register the user
    try
    {
      WebSecurity.CreateUserAndAccount(
        model.UserName,
        model.Password,
        new {            
            UpdatedBy = 0,
            UpdatedDate = DateTime.Today,
            CreatedBy = 0,
            CreatedDate = DateTime.Today
          }
       );

      WebSecurity.Login(model.UserName, model.Password);
      CreateAuthenticationTicket(model.UserName);
      return RedirectToAction("Index", "Home");
    }
    catch (MembershipCreateUserException e)
    {
      ModelState.AddModelError("", ErrorCodeToString(e.StatusCode));
    }
}

In ExternalLoginConfirmation method: 

...
OAuthWebSecurity.CreateOrUpdateAccount(provider, providerUserId, model.UserName);
 OAuthWebSecurity.Login(provider, providerUserId, createPersistentCookie: false);
 CreateAuthenticationTicket(model.UserName);
 return RedirectToLocal(returnUrl);   
... 

And in the Login method: 

public ActionResult Login(LoginModel model, string returnUrl)
{
      if (ModelState.IsValid && WebSecurity.Login(model.UserName,
                model.Password, persistCookie: model.RememberMe))
      {
        CreateAuthenticationTicket(model.UserName);
        return RedirectToLocal(returnUrl);
      }

      // If we got this far, something failed, redisplay form
      ModelState.AddModelError("", "The user name or password provided is incorrect.");
      return View(model);
}

It's now time to read the serialized data from our cookie and replace the HttpContext.Current.User. Do this by overriding the Application_PostAuthenticateRequest method in project's Global.asax.cs . 

protected void Application_PostAuthenticateRequest(Object sender, EventArgs e)
{
      HttpCookie authCookie = Request.Cookies[FormsAuthentication.FormsCookieName];
      if (authCookie != null)
      {
        FormsAuthenticationTicket authTicket = FormsAuthentication.Decrypt(authCookie.Value);
        JavaScriptSerializer serializer = new JavaScriptSerializer();
        if (authTicket.UserData == "OAuth") return;
        CustomPrincipalSerializedModel serializeModel =           serializer.Deserialize<CustomPrincipalSerializedModel>(authTicket.UserData);
        CustomPrincipal newUser = new CustomPrincipal(authTicket.Name);
        newUser.Id = serializeModel.Id;
        newUser.FirstName = serializeModel.FirstName;
        newUser.LastName = serializeModel.LastName;
        HttpContext.Current.User = newUser;
      }
}

To access the attached data from pages:

@(User as CustomPrincipal).FullName

And from server: 

@(User as CustomPrincipal).FullName



European ASP.NET MVC 4 Hosting - Amsterdam :: How to Add Metatags on .cshtml Pages in MVC

clock April 8, 2013 09:08 by author Scott

This quick article is a response to a question I received today on Facebook. Please use the following procedure to add metatags on .cshtml pages.

Step 1

When we create a MVC4 Application using an Internet Template we get a "Shared" folder inside the "Views" folder on the root and in the "Shared" folder you will find a layout page named "_Layout.cshtml". Open that file.

Step 2

In the "_Layout.cshtml" page add a new section call inside the <head> tag, as given below:

In the above image you can see that a section call is not required; in other words whenever we need metatags on a page we can define.

Step 3

Now, open you .cshtml page where you wish to add metatags and add the following section reference:

Step 4

Now, open the page in a browser and you will see your metatags in action.

Advanced

We can also make these metatags dynamic, in other words we can control them from controllers.

Controller

public ActionResult Index()
{
    ViewBag.Message = "Modify this template to jump-start your ASP.NET MVC application.";
    ViewBag.MetaKeywords = "abc";
    ViewBag.MetaDescription = "abc";

    return View();
}

Section on .cshtml page

@section metatags {
    <meta name='keywords' content='@ViewBag.MetaKeywords'/>
    <meta name='description' content='@ViewBag.MetaDescription'/>
}

Hope this helps.

 



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